Indications of AP view for Chest Skiagram

When we are considering chest skiagrams, PA views are almost always preferred. This is because lung pathologies are better visible in PA view. Why are lung pathologies “better visible in PA view”? In AP position the x-ray first enters the heart, so cardiac shadow in AP view is larger than that in PA view. This […]


Hallpike Maneuver to Differentiate causes of Positional Vertigo

Positional vertigo gets triggered by a certain critical position of head of the patient. It can be caused by a pathology of central or peripheral component of the vestibular system and nerves. It’s of utmost importance to find out the site of lesion to initiate proper treatment. Hallpike maneuver or Dix-Hallpike maneuver helps to differentiate […]

Medical Opinions

The Origin of Medical Symbol – Asklepian or Caduceus?

The symbol of medicine changed from time to time, most confusing of which is the change to Rod of Asclepius from Caduceus. This change happened “in the late 19th and early 20th century as a result of documented mistakes, misunderstandings, and confusion” (source: Wikipedia). Even now both these symbols are used in various parts of […]

Medical Opinions NEET PG

Superspecialization- Is It an End of Rat Race? – Rajamahendran R

Superspeciality has become the Gateway for Practice now. After MBBS and PG around 10 years spent reaching 28 to 30 years… Post-MD General, MD paeds, MS ENT, MS General, MS OBG – now it has become a compulsion to do Superspeciality. The number of students appearing in Each specialty shows the awareness seen among the […]


Systemic Examination of Respiratory System

This article is an exam-oriented discussion for medical students. This is a flowchart showing only the salient points to remember during performing a systemic examination of the respiratory system. Please Note: I only presented the systemic examination part. General examination should also be included when doing a complete physical examination. I shall later post another article on the general examination. Actually the […]

Immunology Medical Immunology Medicine

What is Inflammasome?

Definition – The inflammasomes are innate immune system receptors and sensors that regulate the activation of caspase-1 and induce inflammation in response to infectious microbes and molecules derived from host proteins¹. These are an important component of Innate immunity because they can recognize the molecules released by the pathogen even without any previous exposure from such molecules. […]


Plant Fibers vs. Dietary Fibers – Commonly Confused

Plant fiber Fibers from which threads or ropes are prepared. They are thin, long plant tissue with good tensile property. They can be found in various parts – Types Seed fiber – cotton (Gossypium genus), Kapok, Luffa, coir Bast fiber – jute, flax, hemp, esparto (mostly the phloem tissue) Leaf fiber – sisal, henequen Regenerated fiber – soybean, bamboo Semisynthetic fiber – […]

Anatomy Ophthalmology

Segment and Chamber of the Eye – Don’t Confuse

Segments are the two major parts of the eye separated by the posterior surface of posterior lens capsule and zonules. While the aquous humor is divided by the iris and pupil into two chambers. Boundaries of Anterior Segment Anterior boundary – posterior surface of the cornea. Some authors prefer to consider cornea as a part […]

Medical Microbiology Medicine Microbiology Articles Zoology

Why do viruses often come from bats? A discussion with your friendly neighborhood virologist

Hello everyone! I’m /u/_Shibboleth_ and I’m a Virologist/Immunologist. The 4.5 years I spent getting a PhD were dedicated to studying antibody responses against emerging viruses like Ebola and Marburg. So you can imagine how much time I’ve spent thinking about bats. Here are some answers about why they always seem to be the culprit when it comes […]

Anatomy Medicine Ophthalmology

Anatomy of the Human Eye

This image shows various parts of the human eye. Various layers were reflected to expose the deeper structures. A single ray of light is shown in the middle to explain the image-forming pathway. Image Labels posterior segment ora serrata ciliary muscle ciliary zonules Schlemm’s canal pupil anterior chamber cornea iris lens cortex lens nucleus ciliary […]